Saturday, June 20, 2020

Importance of Sex Education - Free Essay Example

It may be the most important talk you or the school will ever have with your children. The talk about sex which is recommended at about age eight. (Quillen 19) Some say this is too young but a preemptive strike can give your children a healthy, positive, respectful view of human intimacy. This will help with all the garbage that will come from the media and peer groups. Such as all the commercials that try to sell sex, the movies and music videos. But no matter what, all parents need help with this subject. This is where sex education comes in handy. Sex education usually occurs during the middle school grades. In a way, it’s a magical time and certainly an opportunistic time for parents. Middle- aged kids are usually extremely curious and interested. Further, they are conceptual enough to understand most of what is explained to them. They are not yet emotionally or hormonally preoccupied with sex, so they are able to look at it objectively. Sex education in public schools has been a controversial issue in the United States for over a decade. With all the sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancy crisis growing, sex education is needed. Some of the American public believes that sex education should not be taught at school. Sex education should go on at home with parents. When it’s taught at school they’re not putting emphasis on abstinence and encouraging children to have sex. Our American culture is very sexually orientated. (George 2) Sex can be seen all over the media. Sex oozes from every aspect of our culture and there’s no kid that can avoid it. After being faced with sex on an everyday basis, the independent teens of today will make their own decisions on whether or not to have sex. The important thing is to make sure that they know all aspects of it. Sex education gives young people an understanding of positive sexuality. It also provides health information and skills on decision making(George). Successful sex education programs have several great points. The great points include exercises to encourage their moral values, learn to talk with one another, and taught how to negotiate while in sexual situations. (Ramos 2) Subjects include sexual development, reproduction, relationships, affection, intimacy, body image, and gender roles. These are important issues that young people deal with everyday. It is important to share with students that you don’t have to feel pressured into sex. Sex education specifically teaches students strategies to deal with these issues. The majority of our nation favors sex education in public schools. There are some surveys that show eighty-nine percent of citizens support it. The other eleven percent believes that sex education prompts young people to have sex. This reasoning is based on nothing. There is no evidence that proves sex education causes any negative behavior (Ramos 7). Since 1981, the year that HIV was an epidemic, adolescents have ac counted for only 20 percent of new infections(Quillen 6). HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It’s a blood virus that is transmitted when a person comes into contact with infected body fluid. This includes unprotected sex. Condoms made of latex are one way to protect against contracting the virus if the person chooses to have sex. This is some of the information that sex education provides young people with. This information is vital. Only a small amount of teens infected with HIV actually know they have it. If teens take risks of having unprotected sex with their partner because they know they are sure â€Å"their partner† doesn’t have the virus, they are putting themselves at risk. This could cause the HIV crisis to grow. Sex education teaches young people that having unprotected is risky sex and has possible consequences. These are things that as parents don’t really get addressed until it’s too late. The people who don’t beli eve in sex education in school say that it does not enhance life. How can that be so when it could help save lives! There are a lot of young people confused about what really causes HIV. Most commonly, young people think that HIV is a homosexual disease or an IV drug user’s disease (Quillen 18). Sex education could also inform students that everyone can be infected. Teen pregnancy is a problem in the U. S. A brief news bulletin from NBC showed that there are about 1. 2 million teens that get pregnant every year (Jayson 1). This could be caused by the lack of the teen’s knowledge. Most of these teens were having unprotected sex the first time they participated in intercourse. Sex education can help reduce teen pregnancy by encouraging sexual responsibility. The risk of STDs and teen pregnancy is an irreversible problem. The key is preventing it. This is a very important time for your children. The world is changing; it’s more dangerous now than ever. The st akes are higher now; they have more to lose and more to gain. There is more to worry about, more to protect from, and more need for solid, lasting family commitments. This can and will be instilled in your children through sex education. Parents are responsible for sharing and informing teens of sex education. A lot of parents are not comfortable doing so. That’s why they offer the sex education class. This class does not zero us out from participating, because we are left with monitoring our teens. You as parents can convey values and attitudes that may discourage sex. Parents can emphasize the importance of school and discourage dating because it interferes with academic success. Along with parental discussion and sex education the point will get across to our teens. Is it your time to have a talk with your child?

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Effective Organization Information Organization Strategies - 825 Words

Effective Organization Information and Organization Strategies (Essay Sample) Content: Effective Organization Information and Organization StrategiesStudentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s NameInstitutional AffiliationIntroductionCorporate strategies are used by organizations as yardstick to help propel their daily operations. The strategies made by top governance of an organization mostly revolve around the mission and vision of the company. An organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s objective normally acts as a focal point and motivational factor that drives operations within an organization. Most company strategies involve information management to help spearhead business operations. Information that needs to be managed by an organization for its market dominance may include production information, sales and purchasing information, procurement information, internal operation information, human resources management information and information security. Therefore, strategies for proper handling of organization information may help an organization secure market dominance and secure compe titive advantage over other companies.Information Technology (IT) agenda in an organizationInformation technology has changed the way organizations are managed. Most important information technology impacts to organization impact include improvement of communication. Most communication systems in organizations are now digitized making corporate exchange to be easier and faster. The advent of internet has led to the use of email, video conferencing, corporate chats and use of team spaces. Information agenda is also to help ascertain proper inventory management. Most goods and services of an organization can be centrally managed using Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. IT also helps in ensuring secure management of an organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s voluminous data. This in the end leads to protection of an organization goodwill and patent rights. Since an organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s interest is the management of all its stakeholders, information technology systems help to centrally pr ovide public relations. This mostly helps to manage customer interests thus improving sales.Relationships between IT agenda and Organization StrategiesStrategy of competitive advantage and IT have always blend well in an organization in that ERP systems and the internet have promoted proper internal operations and external communication that results in digitized benchmarking with other companies without their knowledge. This makes an organization to retain its dominance and innovate consistently to beat other competitors. An organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s strategy that helps to manage distance and time is fully supported by information technology tools such electronic commerce. E-commerce has promoted globalization and increased an organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s customer base. The use of online payment systems in E-commerce has also increased profitability of an organization. E-commerce systems have also promoted the ease of comparison of prices leading impulse buying by the customer, thus incr easing organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s profitability (Kshetri, 2014). The organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s strategy of good company culture has been enhanced by the advent of IT. The use of group mails and charts have revolutionized company culture and made it easy for a back and forth information flow. Most organizations have created chart spaces with all levels of employees. This has prevented fear of expressing oneself, and motivated employees to provide constructive opinion towards achieving company goals. Management process is also an organization strategy that is well set to allow proper co-ordination of different operation levels. IT has fully contributed to the process of management process through the use of management information Systems (MIS). MIS usually categorizes different levels of management and each level assigned different and specific roles. MIS is also designed to manage the flow of authority among employees. There are some MIS levels designed to provide management with predet ermined knowledge decision tools. The executive decisions managed by MIS include, strategic decision, tactical decision and operational decision. The division of these knowledge bases by IT is healthy for achieving an organizationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s vision and mission. The relation of workplace management and IT has also been the major winning factor for company performance. Most companies nowadays adopt the work from home strategies because of the penetration of internet and continuous innovations in technology making IT services cheap. Relationship between management structure and IT has also improved business performances. For instance, the use of online group platforms such as chats and group mails has dismantled the traditional corporate structure making management to be devolved to the junior...

Monday, May 18, 2020

Homelessness And IDPs In Jamaica - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1180 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/03/26 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Homelessness Essay Did you like this example? Literature Review While ID is a global crisis and various studies have been conducted on the persons who are affected by it in many countries. However, there are limited resources available for such persons in Jamaica and the terminology IDPs does not resonates with many Jamaicans. The Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) report of 2013 describes displaced persons as those that may have been placed at risk of poverty due to being separated from their means of livelihood or support. The report further picks to the nuances of social, political, legal and other frames of reference that may apply to these persons inclusive of deportees/ IRMs, and ex-prisoners but not stranded visitors. The report states that these persons are unable to provide for their basic needs through their efforts, including employment, or because of other barriers to their freedom. With issues as these, persons often become homeless and either end up in a homeless shelter or on the street. (PIOJ 2013, pg 20 par 1,2) The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) posits that in the early 1990s internal displacement went on the international agenda and became recognised as an important issue of global concern. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Homelessness And IDPs In Jamaica" essay for you Create order It was only a subject that had neither clear definitions nor a normative framework that would be able to guide states and international humanitarian actors. While much improvement ismaking, there is room for greater accomplishment. https://www.internal-displacement.org/index.php/internal-displacement/history-of-internal-displacement (25/10/2018) Belay Rehabilitation Centre posted an article stating that In addition to the effects of internal displacement, the negative experiences of evacuees in temporary shelters, tent cities, and other evacuation centres (malnutrition, epidemics, physical assaults, and other human rights violations) produce adverse emotional and behavioural effects and psychological disorders. IDPs in Jamaica are affected in these as well especially the deportees/IRMs, ex-prisoners and stranded visitors. Deportees / Involuntary Returned Migrants (IRMs) Deportees are otherwise called involuntary returned migrants (IRMs),are defined in the IOM 2018 profile as those nationals abroad who are involuntarily returned to their country of birth following charges for offences committed (criminal and civil) in a country overseas and in which they have no citizenship status, although they may have lived there for many years. Many deportees have become homeless and displaced as they may have inadequate or no connection with family or friends in Jamaica. The PIOJ 2013 report postulates that the deportees often have difficulty reintegrating into the society. From a social protection perspective, deportees are open to risks of poverty not only because of the lack of sufficient family support systems, but also their risks of unemployment and low livelihood security, based on their circumstances. Ex-prisoners While crime can maybe excused and though everyone makes mistakes, being an ex-prisoner at times results in one becoming displaced. The PIOJ 2013 defines ex-prisoners as those who have been discharged (sentence only) and those who arereleased on parole. The report also states that ex-prisoners are a vulnerable group because of the potential to be or remain poor because of the challenges they face to be employed. They may become internally displaced if the crime they committed has turned community members against them, or their pride and fear for their own life. Henry-Lee 2005 reported that after being released from prison, ex-prisoners found life to be particularly challenging because rehabilitation in the nations prisons is almost non-existent. Stranded Visitors Stranded visitors are aliens who have been visiting the island and have become homeless and internally displaced, they are not citizens of Jamaica. They could be visiting the country for several reasons. These persons have come to the attention of the researcher because some became homeless and were found wandering the streets. Such persons are brought to homeless residential shelters by immigration officers who work with the Passport, Immigration Citizenship Agency (PICA), or they may be referred by other agencies. There is no previous research that has been carried out on this set of persons. The researchers own experience during 11 years of working with the homeless has challenged her to include this un-studied group in this research. Psychosocial Stressors Some psychosocial stressors that may affect these cohorts of IDPs include: Homelessness Unemployment Estrangement from family Absence of economic support Absence of supportive legislation and policies Stigma of imprisonment Theoretical Framework The theoretical underpinning of this study will be based on two (2) theories, the ecological systems theory and capability approach. The ecological systems theory is a joint approach of ecological principles and the systems theory primary established by Bronfenbrenner in the 1970s as a theory of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1994). From a Social Work viewpoint, the ecological systems theory place emphases on the person in the environment. This theory will help to describe how the homeless internally displaced person and the environment are interactive and synergist exists with each other in ways that may simultaneously affect one another and different subsystems in their environment (Weiss-Gal, 2008). The Ecological Systems Theory This theory postulates that the best fit between the homeless IDPs and their environment, results when they are connected and engaged within a supportive environment which assists in their functioning. Bronfenbrenner conceptualized that a persons progr ession is affected by their surrounding environment. He segmented the individuals environment into five different levels; this research will only focus on threethe microsystem, the mesosystem, and the macro-system. Capability Approach (CA) The capability approach (CA) initially proposed by Sen in 1979 succeeded the basic needs approach. Sen 1999a and Nussbaum 2001 expounded CA theory to enhance the assessment of individual needs, along with the evaluation of social provisions and the impact of policies and how they may affect social transformation. The capability approach to a persons advantage is concerned with evaluating it regarding his or her actual ability to achieve various valuable functioning as a part of living. The corresponding approach to social advantage for aggregative appraisal as well as for the choice of institutions and policy takes the set of individual capabilities as constituting an indispensable and central part of the relevant informational base of such evaluation (Sen 1993: 30). Capability approach, therefore, is a broad context for the assessment of human well-being and societal organizations, the formulation of policies and procedures in regards to changes in humanity. Therefore, the core focus of using this approach is to utilize its concept to assist in developing a positive change in the welfare of the homeless IDPs. Methodology Research Design A qualitative, multiple case study research (Creswell, 2007, p.74) will be employed with 30 adults male and female who experienced being homeless and internally displaced. Case studies are effective as they permit a wealthy, vigorous and a complete description of the phenomenon being investigated. According to Baxter and Jack (2008) Case study research design principles lend themselves to including numerous strategies that promote data credibility or true value (p. 556). This type of research also answers those questions that are necessary to extrapolate information that is necessary for this study. A case study allows one to place boundaries around ones case to keep the case within a reasonable scope (Creswell, 2007, p.73). This study may be limited because only interviews will be conducted to gather data because of limited resources.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Grant Writing Courses You Can Take Online

Grant writers connect people and groups seeking funding with funding sources. They work in a wide range of settings including nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, local governments, and businesses. If youre interested in a career in grant writing, consider developing your skills through an online program. Grant writing is the process of completing applications for financial grants, which are non-repayable funds provided by organizations such as government departments, corporations, and foundations. Before choosing an online grant writing program, assess your finances, available time, and career goals. Are you looking to earn a certificate or degree in grant writing as a step towards a future career, or are you mid-career and seeking to improve your grant writing skills? Once youve answered these questions, you can easily determine which program is best for you. Free Online Grant Writing Resources You can find plenty of grant writing tips, general information, and even a few classes online for free. These resources rarely offer official certification, credit, or continuing education units. However, if youre good at independent learning or are simply looking to beef up your existing skills, the following options might work well for you. Coursera Coursera is home to a grant proposal course created by the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. The course carries a fee if you wish to have graded assignments and earn a course certificate, but you can audit all of the course videos for free. MIT Open CourseWare The Massachusetts Institute of Technology provides a wide range of classes for free through MIT OpenCourseWare. The institutes graduate level Advanced Writing Seminar covers much more than grant writing, but youll find some excellent lessons on grants as well as writing and presentation tips that can improve your grant writing skills. Minnesota Council on Foundations The Minnesota Council on Foundations guide, Writing a Successful Grant Proposal, provides an overview of the key elements of a successful grant application. Nonprofitready.org If youre working for a nonprofit, nonprofitready.org offers two free online courses: Getting Foundation Grants and Grantsmanship Essentials. Youll need to create a free account to take these courses. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency The United States Environmental Protection Agencys EPA Grants 101 Tutorial walks you through four steps of the grant application process. While the tutorial is focused on applying for EPA grants, the advice is useful for many other types of grant proposals. Online Grant Writing Classes You can find many reasonably-priced options for online grant writing courses. Below, youll find some examples of these courses, along with course descriptions and costs. University of Georgia The University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education offers two courses: an introductory-level course called A to Z Grant Writing, and a higher-level course called Advanced Grant Proposal Writing. Each course provides 24 hours of instruction for a cost of $159. The classes are offered on the ed2go.com platform. Udemy Udemy delivers over a dozen courses on different aspects of grant writing. Options range from introductions to the grant writing process to more specialized classes on nonprofits and NIH grants. Courses are broken down into short lectures, and total course time ranges from 45 minutes to 5.5 hours. Each course costs $10.99. University of Wisconsin The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee offers an Introduction to Grant Writing course for $150. The course covers fundraising strategies and explores the six stages of grant writing. The class carries .5 continuing education units. Online Grant Writing Certificate Programs Many colleges offer online grant writing certificate programs. Costs vary, with typical prices ranging from a few hundred dollars to about $1,500. The required time commitment also varies significantly across courses. These large variations in cost and time commitment reveal one of the problems with certificate programs: they tend to not be accredited programs, and some of the certificates merely represent that you paid for a program and made an attempt at completing the instruction modules. When choosing a program, look carefully at the curriculum and the depth of the instruction to ensure that the course is worth the investment. Start your research with this list of examples: University of South Carolina USCs Grant Writing Certificate Program involves thirty hours of classes covering four courses: Introduction to Grant Writing, Needs Based Assessment, Intermediate Grant Writing, and Program Development and Evaluation. Both online and classroom options are available for a fee of $1,322. Arizona State University Arizona State University offers two levels of grant writing certificates: Grant Development—State and Foundation Proposal Certificate for $999; and Advanced Grant Development—Federal Proposal Certificate for $1,175. The courses take six weeks, and students can expect to spend 12 to 15 hours a week on coursework. University of Colorado at Colorado Springs UCCS offers an intensive credit-bearing certificate program, Graduate Certificate in Grant Writing, Management, and Program Evaluation. To apply for the program, students must hold a bachelors degree. Completion of the certificate requires a grade of B- or better in four courses: Evaluation, Grant Writing, Grant Management, and an elective. Both classroom and online options are available. University of Central Florida The University of Central Floridas Division of Continuing Education, in partnership with ed2go, offers a non-credit Certificate in Grant Writing and Nonprofit Management. The program includes four courses: Introduction to Nonprofit Management, Marketing Your Nonprofit, Writing Effective Grant Proposals, and Advanced Grant Proposal Writing. The cost is $465. Fort Hays State University Fort Hays State University offers an Eight-Week University Grant Writing Certification Program for $175. The class meets online for two months. Participants must receive a score of 70% or higher on the final exam to earn a certificate. Southern Methodist University Southern Methodist University offers a Grant Research and Writing Certificate Program through WorldEducation.net. This is a more thorough (and more expensive program) than many others with 150 hours of instruction at a cost of $2,995. To earn a certificate, students must complete five courses: Introduction to Grant Research, Introduction to Grant Writing, Specialized Techniques for Grant Writing, Technical Writing, and Advanced Grant Writing. The program can typically be completed in six months. Online Grant Writing Degree Programs Grant writing is generally not offered as a college major, so you wont find many degree programs focused solely on grant writing. Instead, grant writers tend to major in writing-focused fields such as English, marketing, or communication studies. That coursework is then supplemented with specialized coursework, a certificate program, or internship experience focused on grant writing. One exception, however, is the MA in Grant Writing, Management and Evaluation program offered at Concordia University Chicago. Concordias program takes an multidisciplinary approach to grant writing that includes collaboration with your student cohort and partnering with organizations relevant to your professional goals. The program is 100% online, requires 30 credit hours of coursework, and can be completed in 20 months. The cost is over $13,000, but unlike many graduate programs, financial aid is available.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Trifles In Shakespeares Othello And Susan Glaspell And...

Plays are written to entertain an audience, usually performed on a stage or read by a cast of people playing different characters to help the audience understand the drama that is going on. In Shakespeare’s tragedy play, Othello, he captivates his audience through the tragedy of love and despair. Similarly, Susan Campbell writes the one-act play titled Trifles about ways love can kill. Susan Glaspell and Shakespeare present the major characters very similarly through the symbols in the story, but also convey them in different ways that send the audience two different messages. In Shakespeare’s, Othello, Desdemona’s handkerchief symbolizes love, romantic deeds, marriage, and power. The handkerchief serves as both a physical and symbolic†¦show more content†¦The lyrics of the song help to reveal a deep meaning downhearted connection between Othello and Desdemona. She sings this song after she is accused of infidelity and feeling sad about it. She expresses her mood through the lyrics, â€Å"The poor soul sat editorial emendation sighing editorial emendation by a sycamore tree, Sing all a green willow†(4.3.43-44) describing how she became so unhappy. Later in the lyrics, she describes the depth of sexism that has affected her in her marriage to Othello: â€Å"Let nobody blame him, his scorn I approve†(4.3.56). Even as she was dying, she could still see no wrong in Othello. During that time, women were to ask no questions and obey their husbands as if they were dogs, and Desdemona finally realized how much control Othello had over her when she sang the song along with how every man treated their women. In the one-act play, Trifles, women were also treated like pets who had to obey everything their husbands said and stay caged away in their homes. Mrs. Wright was like Desdemona and could not handle being controlled anymore, so she acted. The dead songbird that was found by Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale during the investigation of John Wrights death led them to believe this was Minnie’s doing. The song bird represents Mrs. Wright when she was young, free woman. Mrs. Hale says,â€Å"She used to wear pretty clothes and be lively, when she was Minnie Foster, one of the town girls singing in the choir† (Glaspell 855). When sheShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Othello And Glaspell s Trifles995 Words   |  4 Pagesbrought women’s struggle under male dominance to light. Shakespeare’s Othello and Glaspell’s Trifles bring great female characters to the stage that share similarities. Both Glaspell and Shakespeare follow the same theme, while using both fore shadowing and irony to illustrate that Desdemona, Emilia, Bianca, Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Peters, and Mrs. Hale live under similar oppressive conditions. Both authors write about Patriarchal dominance. Shakespeare reveals his theme through Bianca’s relationship withRead MoreSymbols Add A Level Of Depth That Can Help The Reader To879 Words   |  4 Pagescan help expand the reader’s knowledge of what certain actions or evens can mean during the play. Symbols can be found throughout both Trifles and Othello, and each one helps further the plot or enhance characterization in some way. Susan Glaspell and William Shakespeare both use powerful symbols to further the plot and enhance character development. In Trifles, one of the most important symbols play is the birdcage that Mrs. Wright had stashed away within her kitchen. During the play, both MrsRead MoreThe Bond Between Women in Williams Shakespeares Literautre 908 Words   |  4 Pageslifetime, this is due to the heavy reliance on emotional connects that they share. Desdemona and Emilia in Othello, the Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare show this bond between women through Shakespeare’s use of foreshadowing. As Desdemona begins to realize her fate she tells her dear friend Emilia â€Å"Lay on my bed my wedding sheets† (4.3.108-110). Desdemona had begun to realize just how upset Othello was, although she did not know the reason as to why he was, she knew that he would end up killing herRead MoreSympathy From William Shakespeare s Othello And Mrs. Wright1762 Words   |  8 Pagesangle, those audience members might be more likely to take that character’s side in an on-stage conflict, even if that character might be considered the play’s â€Å"villain.† Two great examples of this are Iago from William Shakespeare’s Othello and Mrs. Wright in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles; both are the instigators of domestic violence, both feel that they have been wronged, and at different points in their respective plays, they are, to varying degrees of success, able to capture the audience’s sympathiesRead MoreFacilitating Learning and Assessment in Practice3273 Words   |  14 PagesGables and The Scarlet Letter, Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov, Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Arthur Miller’s The Crucible and Death of a Salesman, Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, Shakespeare’s MacBeth and Hamlet, and numerous examples of poetry by Whitman, Wordsworth, the Brownings, Poe, Dickinson, Donne, Frost, Burns, Sandburg, Longfellow, Hughes, Angelou, Cummings, Plath and others. A variety of English courses were available at my

Maya Civilization Collapse - 1311 Words

The example of societal collapse in which I will be making reference to throughout this essay is the Maya civilization. The Maya civilization is, â€Å"probably the best known of all early American civilizations.† (Fagan, 1995) It was at its strongest point between AD 300 AND 900. Around AD 900 was the time of its collapse. This civilization was developed in a densely, tropical forest on either highlands or lowlands. Today to visit a Mayan site, people would go to the modern Mexican state, capital city of Merida. This site was once home to the â€Å"New Worlds most advanced Native American civilization before European arrival.† (Diamond, 2009) Over the years there has been many predictions on what had caused the Maya civilization to collapse. At†¦show more content†¦He stated that if the communication between the rulers and the Gods failed and the hope for a good harvesting season and the production of rainfall to occur, tensions would develop rapidly among the group. Here we have another example of how climate change and societal factors can affect the societal well-being of a group. Traditions were handed down from generation to generation. The ways of living and teaching were embedded into each Mayan person. Some of these ways of living consisted as being hunter-gatherers, this is because their predecessors were known for their hunting and gathering of supplies to keep them alive. Climate change and education come into consideration here whilst talking about their well-being. Due to the fact that their predecessors were hunter-gatherers, the weather had a major impact on their ways of collecting food and supplies. If there was severe weather conditions throughout the forest there was a limit in the amount of food collected and in terms of the education view it declines also because they cannot learn from their ancestors how to survive in these conditions. It is believed that they were not savages but people who developed their own cult ureShow MoreRelatedThe Fall of the Mayan Empire Essay1517 Words   |  7 Pages The fall of the Mayan Empire The collapse of the Mayan Empire is one of history’s greatest mysteries. It was one of the most advanced and developed civilizations of its time period, reining during the Pre-Classic period and into the Classic and Post-Classic Periods (2000 B.C. – 900 A.D.). The territory stretched from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, down to modern day El Salvador in Central America. Its achievements were monumental for the era, being the first empire communicating with the useRead MoreArchaeological Interpretations : Archaeology Eastern Mesoamerica1888 Words   |  8 Pages Isabella Gines 7 December 2015 Dr. Travis Stanton Anthropology 115R Archaeological Interpretations: Archaeology Eastern Mesoamerica The Mysterious Collapse Mayan civilization began long before Christopher Columbus, â€Å" founded the new world†, The Mayan civilization persisted for more than 1,000 years, That is over twice as long as America, just think that a society formed by people some see as primitive expanded into a thriving society which lasted over 1,000 years. This also meansRead MoreA Brief Look at the Mayan Civilization Essay example1548 Words   |  7 PagesOlmec were the Maya people. The Maya can be analyzed in terms of their culture. This civilization came about in Mesoamerica around 250 AD with a great influence coming from that of the Olmec. The first 650 years of the Maya civilization’s existence was known as the Classic Period. They created a remarkable society of more than 40 cities in the region which is now southern Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Belize. The cities contained mostly ceremonial centers and majority of the Maya lived a rural agriculturalRead MoreSecrets And The Collapse Of The Maya Essa y926 Words   |  4 PagesSecrets Locked in Stone Maya scholars debated for decades over the fate of the Maya. Recent evidence from an unlikely source, points a sustained drought in the 9th and 10th Centuries. Stalagmites and Stone Carvings Offer Clues on the Collapse of the Maya Civilization Circa 900 A.D., the Maya world fell apart. How could an ancient Meso American civilization flourish for hundreds of years only to fade into the forest? That riddle has perplexed scholars ever since 19th century explorers JohnRead MoreEnd of Mayan Civilization1143 Words   |  5 PagesEnd of Mayan Civilization Samuel Nathaniel H. Stansbury HUM 111 11/3/2012 The mystery concerning the fundamental explanation for the collapse of the Mayan Civilization has been a major focus for researchers in the fields of anthropology and archeology for a considerable period of time. At the very core of this mystery of the Mayan collapse was the question of how could such a strong, stable civilization that had flourished for approximately twenty-seven hundred years disappear without a clearRead MoreCollapse Of The Mayan Civilization1024 Words   |  5 PagesPatricia Licea-Chavez 10/27/14 History 2 Collapse of the Mayan Civilization There were multiple reasons for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. Some of these reasons are environmental damages/overpopulation, natural disasters, and warfare.(The) Out of these the most likely reason for their collapse was war. (Cartwright) Within this war there were also the battles that were going on within its civilization, the offerings that they made to their gods, and the campaigns to resist the Spanish conquestRead MoreEssay The Maya Civilization904 Words   |  4 PagesThe Maya Civilization The ancient Maya once occupied a vast geographic area in Central America. Their civilization inhabited an area that encompasses Mexicos Yucatan peninsula and parts of the states of Chiapas and Tabasco, as well as Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. From the third to the ninth century, Maya civilization produced awe-inspiring temples and pyramids, highly accurate calendars, mathematics and hieroglyphics, and a complex social and political order (CollapseRead MoreEssay on Did the Mayan Civilization Collapse as a Result of Drought?1016 Words   |  5 PagesEver since the collapse of the once powerful Maya civilization, people have been trying to find out what caused it. Authors of the article, “Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization”, which include Gerald Haug, Detlef Gà ¼nther, Larry Peterson, Daniel Sigman, Konrad Hughen, and Beat Aeschlimann propose a theory that the Mayans collapsed because of an extended dry period between 760 and 910 A.D. These scientists set out find the answer as to why the Maya civilization collapsed. ThisRead MoreEssay on Collapse in Maya Society1119 Words   |  5 Pagesfirst millennium A.D., the lowland Maya empires disintegrated after 750 years of prominence (Handout 1). Warfare, the growing population, resource depletion, and climatic fluctuations contributed to the downfall of the Classical lowland empires (Schele and Freidel 321). 500 years later, the scattered Maya that remained would again face a crisis as the Spanish conquistadores invaded Yucatan, conquered, and began to rule. Though the Spanish conquest of the Maya brought a new religion and diseasesRead More the aztec and maya Essay721 Words   |  3 Pages The Aztec and Maya were both American Indian people. The Aztec were ruled by a mighty empire in Mexico during the 1400s and early 1500s. The Maya however, developed a magnificent civilization in Central America and Southern Mexico. Both civilizations contributed a great d eal to the modern world and invented items that are still used today. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;According to the Aztec Legend, the ancestors of the people who founded Tenochtitlan, came to the Valley of Mexico. The Aztec wandered

Singapore Healthcare System Long-Term Care Policy

Question: Describe about the Report for Singapore Healthcare System of Long-Term Care Policy. Answer: Introduction Singapore health care system is extraordinary both regarding high quality and in cost control. The expenditure of health care is lowest regarding per capita and percentage of Gross Domestic product when compared to other highly developed countries. The government of Singapore plays an integral part to improve the health facilities. Singapore follows a philosophy that "avoidance is better than treatment." Therefore, it ensures the affordability of health services within the public health system through schemes such as Medisave and Medishield. These are the system of compulsory savings, price control, and subsidies. There are several nursing homes and public hospitals that work on grants through the charity organization. The growing cost is, however, the major concern in present health care system of Singapore. It is due to inflation and increases in the cost of medical devices and products. The report will discuss about the key indicators of health services in Singapore. Further, it will discuss about the quality improvement of these health services along with its accessibility and enhancing affordability. The report will detail the primary health services available in Singapore and explain the health coverage system through its financing twin philosophies. Lastly, it will analyze its funding system. A thorough literature review will be performed to support the discussion. Key Indicators of Health Services In 2002, the OECD has initiated Health Care Quality Indicators project, with the aim to compare the health service quality in different countries. Based on the set of quality indicators one can identify the factors influencing the quality of health services (Pheng Rui, 2016). Rotar et al., (2016) believes that these efforts will stimulate the policy makers and stakeholders cross-national learning. The crude birth and death rate in every 1000 population is 9.9 and 4.4 respectively. The total fertility rate/ female was found to be 1.3 and the under five mortality rate is 3. The primary cause of deaths includes cancer, pneumonia, cerebrovascular diseases and other chronic illness illustrated in the figure below. The total number of cancer patient discharged in the year 2009 and 2010 was 442 and 456 respectively. In the year 2011, the figure was 457 with negligible change (Rotar et al., 2016). (Source: www.oecd.org) (Source: www.liberatehealthcare.com) Accessibility, Raising Quality, and Enhancing Affordability The government balances the individual responsibility and government control with the help of state control (Liu Haseltine, 2016). The health care system of Singapore- Balances transparency Shares data with the market forces balances equity, expenditure, and choice with affordability Singapores expectation from its health outcomes is evident from its "white paper Affordable Healthcare" released by the government of Singapore in 1993. This manifesto clearly embodies its vision, guiding philosophy, and a national health policy (Lim, 2016). Chin et al., (2016) reports that the rising quality of health care services is due to continued effort from Ministry of Health. It has implemented stringent legislations and enforced policies. It regulates the licensing of health centers under Medical Clinics Act. It conducts inspections and audits on a regularly basis. The Ministry of Health engages several professional bodies in regulating the professional through code of ethics and practice guidelines. It compares the performance of physicians and institutions annually through a management process. For this purpose, it utilizes The National Health System Scorecard. This Performance measurement, informs about areas of services that needs improvement. According to Goh et al., (2 016), the Health Sciences Authority monitors the process of manufacturing, import, export, advertisement of health related products such as medicines, medical devices, and cosmetic products. It ensures that it meets the quality and safety standards. Accessibility of services has improved by reaching every community with high and low income earning populations through various categories of health services at all levels. For example, the Community Health Assist Scheme subsidizes the services such for colorectal cancer, diabetes, cervical cancer and various dental procedures. The number of hospitals and polyclinics has increased significantly since last decade (Haseltine, 2013). Singapore has enhanced the patients affordability and accessibility of health services through its mix financing system, which offers multiple tiers of protection (Nizar Chagani, 2016). Singapore has introduced a system of co-payment where people do not pay the total charge (Wouters et al., 2016). Government pays a part of the total expenditure while patients through Medisave, Medifund and Medishield system pay a fraction of it. These are discussed in detail in the later section of this report. There are 30 private and public hospitals having 1100 beds. In 2011, Public hospitals were reported with four million outpatient visits of which two-third were subsidized (Pheng Rui, 2016). List of the Primary healthcare services: Polyclinics and Private medical clinics Singapore has 1200 private clinics, which offers primary care for the citizens. Singapore subsidizes the primary health care costs in polyclinics such as GP visits and dentist visits for low income earning Singaporeans (Liu Haseltine, 2016). There are 18 public polyclinics with multi-doctor facility and provides subsidized pharmacy services, health screening, outpatient care and immunization. In 2012, Singapore has introduced The Community Health Assist Scheme which subsidizes low income earning Singaporeans to visit private clinics participating in the scheme to treat specific chronic illnesses and acute conditions (Chin et al., 2016). According to Pheng Rui, (2016), Singapore provides outpatient specialist care in several medical specialists such as oral cancer, neurological disorders, cancer, skin and cardiovascular diseases. The National Heart Centre is popular for these services. Patients avail these services through various government subsidies. Singapore provides after hours care. It has 30 clinics that offer 24 hours emergency care and its details are published online. People can access ambulances via emergency hotline as well as house call medical services that are available 24 hours (Penkunas et al., 2016). Therefore, the services are only short ride away. Figure: Structure of Singapore health system (Source: Singapore Ministry of Health website) Rotar et al., (2016), reported that there are regional hospitals in Singapore, which offers outpatient specialist services and acute inpatient care. They are equipped with emergency departments. There are 30 private and public hospitals having 1100 beds. In 2011, Public hospitals were reported with four million outpatient visits of which two-third were subsidized (Pheng Rui, 2016). Singapore provides integrated mental health services through its National Mental Health Blueprint (Jesus et al., 2016). It has increased the accessibility of mental health services due to it rising demand. Since the last decade, there is increase in community-based services to treat mental illness such as dementia, eating disorders, addictions and others. The Institute of Mental Health provides acute tertiary care to the patients. It provides forensic services, rehabilitative care, counseling services for patients of all ages. The welfare organizations that provides residential care for patient include Singapore Association for Mental Health Singapore Anglican Community Services (Lim et al., 2016) Singapore serves the needs of elder population by social support and long-term care through private operators and voluntary welfare centers. The government subsidizes these services for example Eldershield. It provides hospice care as well as home-based care (Rotar et al., 2016). Financing twin philosophies: Individual Responsibility and Affordable Healthcare Singapore provides all its citizens with health care coverage based on its financing twin philosophies that are individual responsibility and affordable health care (Haseltine, 2013). The country has improved the health care delivery system for its population, which enabled them to secure good health outcomes. It made it possible through Adopting latest technology Mixed financing system Market-based mechanism to promote competition (Malhotra et al., 2016) Various international assessments have recognized these features. The country makes sure that all the citizens can access the primary health care. Singapore addresses the affordability issues through its mix financing system, which offers multiple tiers of protection (Nizar Chagani, 2016). The government balances individual responsibility and government control with the help of - Government subsidies for primary health care Individual savings accounts hospital services and pharmaceuticals Singapore has introduced a system of co-payment where people do not pay the total charge (Wouters et al., 2016). A part of the total expenditure is paid by government while a fraction of it is paid by patients through Medisave and Medishield system. Medisave is the health insurance plan, which allows the people to make substantial savings by accumulating funds (Liu Haseltine, 2016). The citizens pay the fraction of health expenditure through Medisave. Singapore also has low cost insurance scheme called Medishield, for citizens who have low income and cannot meet the medical expenses. Receiving primary health care services in subsidized wards is useful. It secures the retirement of older workers as it offers increased rate of 1% for the first $60,000 of the total savings (Lim, 2016). Medifund is the service provided to those people who are unable to meet their assessed contribution. Eldershield is a policy which provides the citizens with insurance against expenses of private nursing homes. Additionally, Singapore has a system of Central Provident Fund (CPF). It is applicable for permanent residents and working citizens. This savings plan scheme is beneficial in accumulating the significant amount of fund through employers and employees. The members earn the higher rate of returns from their savings (Wouters et al., 2016). With the help of CPF, the country collects the pool of taxation revenue. Singapore also provides privately financed health care services. The World Health Organization reports highlights that out of the total private expenditure on care, 10.1% was obtained from private prepaid plans (Wouters et al., 2016). High profit earning companies can avail this private insurance through integrated shield plans, which are Medisave-approved. People can receive additional benefits such as private and public hospitalizations and opt for Class A and B1 wards. According to Chin et al., (2016), Ministry of Health (MOH) promotes competition and transparency by monitoring any variation in hospital costs in the country. It publishes hospital bill sizes and helps the hospitals to do more with less. Some of the improvements are decreased in LASIK prices by $1000/eye. MOH further encourages improvement by publishing health outcomes on its websites. This allows people to make informed choices. Figure: Health coverage system in Singapore (Source: www.moh.gov.sg) Analysis of the funding systems in Singapore Healthcare organization According to Tan et al., (2010), the expenditure of health care in Singapore is lowest regarding per capita and percentage of Gross Domestic product (stable at 3%). The total expenditure of the government on the public health system constitutes 1.6% of annual GDP (Tan et al., 2010). However, the quality of care is not compromised and manages both the supply and demand sides of the market. Recently there is an added pressure on the health care system due to: lowering of infant mortality rate ageing Increasing life expectancy These factors are responsible for increasing a cost of health services. To deal with it the government of Singapore is implementing case-mix (Liu Haseltine, 2016). According to Wouters et al., (2016), case-mix can fund public hospitals for providing inpatient acute care. Case-mix implementation is based on hospital output. It ensures equity in financing healthcare. It enables data usage for quality improvement activities. Hospitals can receive information regarding their cost behavior. Hence, it will reinforce their drive for implementing cost-efficient health services (Liu Haseltine, 2016). The case-mix information would help in rationalizing public hospitals fund. The funding will be proportional to resource use since there is a better definition of output. According to Rotar et al., (2016), MOH has announced that case-mix would only be used to fund acute inpatient and day surgery activity. (Source : Rotar et al., 2016) Conclusion Singapore health stem is improving in terms of quality and affordability due to continued effort by the government. The country regulates both private and public health insurances. The Ministry of Health assesses the health care needs to plan and deliver them through range of hospitals and clinics. It finances policies, maintains adequate staffing and governs the public health system. This fast-paced world is increasing the pressure due to growing problems such stress related to family maintenance. The Singapores twin philosophies which anchor the financing system offers health coverage to all it citizens. 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